r.surf.contour - Surface generation program from rasterized contours.
r.surf.contour [-fs] input=string output=string [--overwrite] [--verbose] [--quiet]
- Unused; retained for compatibility purposes, will be removed in future
- Invoke slow, but memory frugal operation (generally not needed, will be removed in future)
- Allow output files to overwrite existing files
- Verbose module output
- Quiet module output
- Name of existing raster map containing contours
- Output elevation raster map
r.surf.contour creates a raster elevation map from a rasterized
contour map. Elevation values are determined using procedures similar
to a manual methods.
To determine the elevation of a point on a contour map, an individual
might interpolate its value from those of the two nearest contour lines
(uphill and downhill).
r.surf.contour works in a similar way. Initially, a vector map of
the contour lines is made with the elevation of each line as an attribute.
When the program v.to.rast
is run on the vector map, continuous "lines" of rasters containing the
contour line values will be the input for r.surf.contour. For each
cell in the input map, either the cell is a contour line cell (which is
given that value), or a flood fill is generated from that spot until the
fill comes to two unique values. So the r.surf.contour algorithm
linearly interpolates between contour lines. The flood fill
is not allowed to cross over
the rasterized contour lines, thus ensuring that an uphill and downhill
contour value will be the two values chosen. r.surf.contour
interpolates from the uphill and downhill values by the true distance.
- Name of an existing raster map that contains a set of
initial category values (i.e., some cells contain known elevation
values (denoting contours) while the rest contain NULL values).
- Name to be assigned to new output raster map that represents
a smooth (e.g., elevation) surface generated from
the known category values in the input raster map layer.
An existing MASK raster map is respected for both reading input
and writing output.
r.surf.contour works well under the following circumstances:
1) the contour lines extend to the the edge of the current region,
2) the program is run at the same resolution as that of the input map,
3) there are no disjointed contour lines,
and 4) no spot elevation data BETWEEN contour lines exist. Spot elevations at
the tops of hills and the bottoms of depressions, on the other hand, improve
the output greatly.
Violating these constraints will cause non-intuitive anomalies to appear in
the output map. Run r.slope.aspect
on r.surf.contour results to locate potential anomalies.
The running of r.surf.contour is very sensitive to the resolution of
rasterized vector map. If multiple contour lines go through the same raster,
slight anomalies may occur. The speed of r.surf.contour is dependent
on how far "apart" the contour lines are from each other (as measured in
raster cells). Since a flood fill algorithm is used, the program's running
time will grow exponentially with the distance between contour lines.
Example to create contour lines from elevation model, then recreating DEM
from these contour lines along with differences analysis (North Carolina
sample data set):
g.region rast=elevation -p
# get minimum elevation value
# generate vector contour lines
r.contour input=elevation output=contours_5m step=5 minlevel=50
# rasterize contour lines
v.info -c contours_5m
v.to.rast input=contours_5m output=contours_5m use=attr column=level
# generate DEM from rasterized contour lines
r.surf.contour input=contours_5m output=elevation_from_cont5m
# calculate difference map
r.mapcalc "diff = elevation - elevation_from_cont5m"
r.colors diff color=differences
# analyze differences statistically
Chuck Ehlschlaeger, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory
Last changed: $Date: 2012-09-18 13:39:02 -0700 (Tue, 18 Sep 2012) $
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